Dayia scabra

Dayia scabra (Brandegee) J. M. Porter,  Aliso 19: 71. 2000.  Gilia scabra Brandegee, Zöe 5: 166. 1903. Type: C. R. Orcutt s.n., MEXICO, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR:  Santa Rosalia, 14 March 1900 (holotype: UC).

Erect herbaceous perennials with woody base or more frequently sub-shrubs, 15–65 cm high and 13–44 cm wide, much branched, the young parts glandular-pubescent with 3–5(–7) celled trichomes mostly less than 1 mm long, each tipped with a unicellular or multicellular yellowish gland.  Woody base to 11–22 mm thick, the bark light to dark tan or gray, spliting into a network of narrow vertical strips.  Branches ascending, branching pattern axillary along the primary axis, ultimately sympodial in the inflorescence, the branches flowering terminally, 9–40 cm long and 1.0–2.0 mm thick the first year, tan to somewhat anthocyanic, chlorophylous terminally, subterete; internodes 1.0–22.0 mm long, generally shorter than the leaves.  Primary leaves alternate or rarely sub-opposite, pinnatifid to nearly palmate, 10.0–39.0 mm long, gradually reduced in size in the inflorescence, rachis 0.6–1.0 mm wide, 3–6 pairs of opposite to sub-opposite lobes, 9.0–35.0 mm long, 0.4–0.9 mm wide,  often two pairs of lobes are located at the base of the mucronate tipped leaf, sparsely glandular.  Inflorescence densely glandular puberulent, composed of reduced (1–) 2-flowered cymes, forming a thyrsoid inflorescence.  Pedicels erect to spreading, pedicel of terminal flower 2–7 mm long, 0.2–0.4 mm thick, pedicel of lateral flower 5–14 mm long, 0.2–0.4 mm thick.  Calyx 5.5–7.5 mm long, 3.0–4.0 mm in diameter at the sinuses, cylindric to campanulate, tapering to a rounded base, glandular externally, less so internally, calyx tube 3.0–4.3 mm long, segments (lobes) equal, erect, 1.2–3.2 mm long, attenuate-acute, with a weak mucro, green costae with three primary veins within, scarious margined except near the apex; sinuses v-shaped, the scarious intervals wider to about equal the chlorophyllous costae, generally not rupturing in fruit.  Corolla funnelform to salverform, 13.0–20.0 mm long, glabrous externally, pale blue, with a pale or white center, the orifice often with purple streaks, tube subequal or slightly longer than lobes, straight, 6.4–10.0 mm long, ca. 2.5–3.5 mm in diameter at 1/2 length, slightly flaring at the orifice, 3.0–5.0 mm wide;  lobes 6.0–9.5 mm long, 4.0–6.0 mm wide at 1/2 length, oval to oblong or nearly orbicular, entire to emarginate, muriculopapillose within, the lobes convolute in bud, in anthesis spreading, with (15–)17–22(–24) close-spaced parallel veins per lobe, the veins not connected in the lobes.  Filaments glabrous above, glandular pappillose at the base, unequal in length, the shortest 3.0–4.0 mm long, the longest 6.0–7.0 mm long, sub-equally attached in the lower tube, the filaments superficially to distinctly adnate to the corolla tube, flowers protandrous;  anthers 1.5–2.0 mm long, 0.2–0.6 mm wide, linear to linear-ovate, erect to versitile, mostly simultaneously dehiscing as the corolla lobes open, along the theca from the terminal point and downward, two to three anthers slightly exserted from the tube, the remaining anthers included.  Pollen grains suboblate to spheroidal; apertures zonate, 5–7 colporate;  exine striate, the reticulum radiating from the apertures like lines of force in a magnetic field.  Nectary disk green, ca, 2 mm wide shallowly cupped, the margin regularly undulate to form erect lobules opposite the calyx segments and spreading ones opposite the corolla lobes.  Ovary three celled, 2.0–3.0 mm long, ca. 1.0 mm wide at the base, glandular at the apex;  style 6.0–8.0 mm long, subequal to longer than the longest anthers;  stigma lobes linear, acute, 0.8–2.5 mm long, spreading when receptive; ovules anatropous, unitegmic, axial placentation,  24–48 per cell.  Fruit a capsule, obovoid, tan to golden brown, often suffused with purple, 3.0–5.5 mm long, 1.5–3.5 mm in diameter, apex acute, loculicidally dehiscing, valves slightly recurving to erect, fruit shorter than the calyx.  Seeds 12–46 per cell, minute, 0.8–1.5 mm long, 0.4–0.8 mm wide, ovoid, nearly round in cross-section, golden to pale tan, the outer testa with hygroscopic mucilage cells, producing copious fibrils when wetted.  Embryo achlorophyllous, surrounded by a more or less thin layer of endosperm, the cotyledons ovate, equal to or slightly longer than the radical.  Chromosomes: x=9. (scabra: rough or gritty to the touch, due to numerous minute projections).

Dayia scabra apparently is very local and restricted to several washes just north of Santa Rosalia, on the eastern coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.  Most of these areas are now under mine tailings and the continued existence of this species in the wild is in question.  This species has been overlooked as a result of taxonomic confusion.  Although the historical collections of D. scabra are representative and quite distinct, they have been misidentified inadvertently as Linanthus nuttallii (Grant 1959) or Giliastrum rigidulum (as Gilia rigidula, Wiggins 1980), or omitted (Day 1964) from treatments. 

Representative specimens examined.—MEXICO, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR:  Santa Rosalia, 14 March 1900, C. R. Orcutt s.n.;  Wash just north of flying field, vicinity of Santa Rosalia, 15 March 1934, R. S. Ferris 8700 (UC).  Sandy flats, 4 mi N Santa Rosalia, 27° 20’N, 112° 19’W, 24 March 1974, G. Webster 19625 (SDNHM).  Cañada El Boleo, 4.5 km NNW Santa Rosalia, 7 November 1997, A. Burquez s.n. (RSA); 27° 22’ 43”N, 112° 19’ 29”W, Boleo Canyon, N of Santa Rosalia, 21 December 1997, J. M. Porter & L. E. Machen 11524 (RSA).