Nomenclature of Loeselia species

Loeselia L.
  Generic synonymy

Loeselia, a genus endemic to the western hemisphere, incorporates about 15 species. They are classified as members of the flowering plant family Polemoniaceae (the Phlox family), in the Loeselia Tribe (Loeselieae), along with members of genera Aliciella, Bryantiella, Dayia, Eriastrum, Giliastrum, Ipomopsis, Langloisia, Loeseliastrum, and Microgilia.

Species list

Loeselia amplectans (Hook. & Arn.) Benth Loeselia amplectans (Hook. & Arn.) Benth
Loeselia caerulea (Cav.) G. Don Loeselia caerulea (Cav.) G. Don
Loeselia ciliata L. Loeselia ciliata L.
Loeselia cordifolia Hemsl. & Rose Loeselia cordifolia Hemsl. & Rose

Loeselia glandulosa (Cav.) G. Don
L. glandulosa (Cav.) G. Don subsp. glandulosa
L. glandulosa subsp. conglomerata (Kunth) Brand
L. glandulosa subsp. nepetifolia (Cham. & Schltdl.) J. M. Porter & L. A. Johnson

Loeselia glandulosa (Cav.) G. Don
Loeselia glandulosa (Cav.) G. Don
Loeselia grandiflora Standl. Loeselia grandiflora Standl.
Loeselia greggii S. Watson Loeselia greggii S. Watson
Loeselia involucrata G. Don Loeselia involucrata G. Don
Loeselia mexicana (Lam.) Brand Loeselia mexicana (Lam.) Brand
Loeselia pumila (M. Martens & Galeotti) Walp. Loeselia pumila (M. Martens & Galeotti) Walp.
Loeselia purpusii Brandegee Loeselia purpusii Brandegee
Loeselia rupestris Benth. Loeselia rupestris Benth.
Loeselia rzedowskii McVaugh Loeselia rzedowskii McVaugh
Loeselia spectabilis J.M. Porter & V.W. Steinmann sp. nov. Loeselia spectabilis J.M. Porter & V.W. Steinmann sp. nov.
Loeselia tancitaroensis J.M. Porter & V.W. Steinmann, sp. nov. Loeselia tancitaroensis J.M. Porter & V.W. Steinmann, sp. nov.

 Key to species of Loeselia

Key to species Loeselia

1. Corolla 20–30 mm long, the lobes 12–22 mm long…(2)

2. Corolla white or cream-colored, the lobes spreading…(3)

3. Cauline leaves broadly lance-ovate, acuminate, 3-9 cm long, sessile and somewhat clasping, grey-green; corolla lobes minutely ciliate, vasculature lacking anastomoses… L. grandiflora Standl.

3' Cauline leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, acute, 1.5–3.2 cm long, distinctly petiolate, bright green, corolla lobes long ciliate, vasculature usually with anastomoses… L. spectabilis J.M. Porter & V.W. Steinm.

2' Corolla bright to pale yellow, the lobes erect, held together by tangled floccose hairs, forming a pseudo-tube… L. rzedowskii McVaugh

1' Corolla 8–22(30) mm long, if greater than 20 mm then the lobes 3.5–10 mm long…(4)

4. Inflorescence bracts all closely appressed, chartaceous in texture, straw-colored, tinged with purple… L. purpusii Brandeg.

4' Inflorescence bracts loose to clustered, only the inner-most appressed, outer bracts herbaceous, sometimes fenestrate (i.e., membranous between veins), green, sometimes purple…(5)

5. Trichomes of inflorescence generally glandular (eglandular in some races of L. glandulosa); leaves and branches alternate; leaf margins green; largest bracts elliptic or ± lanceolate, and bract length >2-10× width…(6)

6. Largest bracts with spreading lobules or coarse teeth, or if finely serrate, then only above middle and the membranous areoles roundish; corolla lobes lavender, often with purple spots or marks near base…(7)

7. Pedicels 20-40 mm long, ascending but geniculate (bent) at summit, with cymules ± horizontal, located distally on branches; bracts numerous, closely spaced beneath flower; largest bracts narrowly lanceolate, finely serrate above middle; flowers 1 per cymule…4. L. pumila (Mart. & Gal.) Walp.

7' Pedicels 4-6 mm long, not geniculate, cymules axillary and ascending, scattered along the stem; bracts few, loosely spaced; largest bracts broadly lanceolate and coarsely toothed; flowers several per cymule.

8. Inflorescence bracts linear to linear-lanceolate; calyx length 3.5–4.5 mm, the lobes entire; ovary 1–1.5 mm…5. L. tancitaroensis J.M. Porter & V.W. Steinm.

8. Inflorescence bracts lanceolate to ovate; calyx length 4.5–6 mm, the lobes 3-toothed; ovary 2–2.5 mm…6. L. rupestris Benth.

6' Largest bracts unlobed but finely serrate throughout, the membranous areoles longer than wide; corolla color as above, or red or rarely yellow…(9)

9. Corolla 17-30 mm long, red, with or without paler spots in the throat, rarely yellow or white, lobes lanceolate…L. mexicana (Lam.) Brand

9' Corolla 8-22 mm long, lavender to pinkish, blue-violet or white, generally with purple spots or marks in the throat, lobes spatulate… L. glandulosa (Cav,.) G. Don

5' Trichomes of inflorescence eglandular; leaves and branches opposite or alternate or mixed; leaf margins white; largest bracts ±ovate, and bract length ca. 1 × width (bract length sometimes >1× width in L. caerulea)…(10)

10. Bract margins generally lacking setae between teeth; lower leaves evenly serrate, not biserrate; upper leaves ± like the lower, not bract-like; filaments puberulent or ciliate near base…(11)

11. Cymules narrowly obovoid to somewhat broader in fruit; outer bracts completely fenestrate; bracts elliptic to ovate, teeth ascending, finely spinescent, spines to 0.5 mm long; corolla lobes gradually tapered to base, not clawed; upper leaves alternate… L. caerulea (Cav.) G. Don

11' Cymules ± spheric; outer bracts partly fenestrate, i.e., membranous between veins in lower 2/3rds, not to apex; bracts broadly ovate, teeth spreading, aristate, with awns 1-3 mm long; corolla lobes with definite claw; upper leaves mostly opposite… L. greggii S. Wats.

10' Bract margins generally bearing setae between teeth; lower leaves unevenly serrate or ±biserrate; upper leaves often different from the lower, becoming bract-like; filaments glabrous…(12)

12. Outer bracts puberulent on the abaxial side; corolla blue-violet, unspotted; S. Baja California; NW Mexico, on lower W slope of Sierra Madre Occidental and del Sur… L. involucrata G. Don

12' Outer bracts glabrous; corolla generally yellow or cream, spotted or unspotted…(13)

13. Corolla unspotted; anthers yellow; major floral bracts numerous (> 5), closely imbricate; peduncle generally naked below, devoid of bracts or nearly so; upper cauline leaves petiolate, cuneate, puberulent. E, S Mexico to Centr Am… L. ciliata L.

13' Corolla spotted red or purple; anthers blue or purple; major floral bracts few (ca. 5), clasping at base, spreading above; peduncle bearing several to numerous, well-spaced bracts; upper cauline leaves sessile, cordate, glabrous. S and W Mexico…(14)

14. Lower and upper branches and leaves opposite; bracts of peduncle opposite; corolla throat glabrous or sparsely glandular pubescent, the lobes glabrous; sinuses of lobes all at same level… L. cordifolia Hemsl. & Rose

14' Lower branches and leaves opposite, the upper alternate; bracts of peduncle alternate; corolla throat and lobes pubescent; sinuses of lobes at several different levels… L. amplectens  (Hook. & Arn.) Benth. (including L. hintoniorum B.L. Turner)

Dayia scabra

Dayia scabra (Brandegee) J. M. Porter,  Aliso 19: 71. 2000.  Gilia scabra Brandegee, Zöe 5: 166. 1903. Type: C. R. Orcutt s.n., MEXICO, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR:  Santa Rosalia, 14 March 1900 (holotype: UC).

Erect herbaceous perennials with woody base or more frequently sub-shrubs, 15–65 cm high and 13–44 cm wide, much branched, the young parts glandular-pubescent with 3–5(–7) celled trichomes mostly less than 1 mm long, each tipped with a unicellular or multicellular yellowish gland.  Woody base to 11–22 mm thick, the bark light to dark tan or gray, spliting into a network of narrow vertical strips.  Branches ascending, branching pattern axillary along the primary axis, ultimately sympodial in the inflorescence, the branches flowering terminally, 9–40 cm long and 1.0–2.0 mm thick the first year, tan to somewhat anthocyanic, chlorophylous terminally, subterete; internodes 1.0–22.0 mm long, generally shorter than the leaves.  Primary leaves alternate or rarely sub-opposite, pinnatifid to nearly palmate, 10.0–39.0 mm long, gradually reduced in size in the inflorescence, rachis 0.6–1.0 mm wide, 3–6 pairs of opposite to sub-opposite lobes, 9.0–35.0 mm long, 0.4–0.9 mm wide,  often two pairs of lobes are located at the base of the mucronate tipped leaf, sparsely glandular.  Inflorescence densely glandular puberulent, composed of reduced (1–) 2-flowered cymes, forming a thyrsoid inflorescence.  Pedicels erect to spreading, pedicel of terminal flower 2–7 mm long, 0.2–0.4 mm thick, pedicel of lateral flower 5–14 mm long, 0.2–0.4 mm thick.  Calyx 5.5–7.5 mm long, 3.0–4.0 mm in diameter at the sinuses, cylindric to campanulate, tapering to a rounded base, glandular externally, less so internally, calyx tube 3.0–4.3 mm long, segments (lobes) equal, erect, 1.2–3.2 mm long, attenuate-acute, with a weak mucro, green costae with three primary veins within, scarious margined except near the apex; sinuses v-shaped, the scarious intervals wider to about equal the chlorophyllous costae, generally not rupturing in fruit.  Corolla funnelform to salverform, 13.0–20.0 mm long, glabrous externally, pale blue, with a pale or white center, the orifice often with purple streaks, tube subequal or slightly longer than lobes, straight, 6.4–10.0 mm long, ca. 2.5–3.5 mm in diameter at 1/2 length, slightly flaring at the orifice, 3.0–5.0 mm wide;  lobes 6.0–9.5 mm long, 4.0–6.0 mm wide at 1/2 length, oval to oblong or nearly orbicular, entire to emarginate, muriculopapillose within, the lobes convolute in bud, in anthesis spreading, with (15–)17–22(–24) close-spaced parallel veins per lobe, the veins not connected in the lobes.  Filaments glabrous above, glandular pappillose at the base, unequal in length, the shortest 3.0–4.0 mm long, the longest 6.0–7.0 mm long, sub-equally attached in the lower tube, the filaments superficially to distinctly adnate to the corolla tube, flowers protandrous;  anthers 1.5–2.0 mm long, 0.2–0.6 mm wide, linear to linear-ovate, erect to versitile, mostly simultaneously dehiscing as the corolla lobes open, along the theca from the terminal point and downward, two to three anthers slightly exserted from the tube, the remaining anthers included.  Pollen grains suboblate to spheroidal; apertures zonate, 5–7 colporate;  exine striate, the reticulum radiating from the apertures like lines of force in a magnetic field.  Nectary disk green, ca, 2 mm wide shallowly cupped, the margin regularly undulate to form erect lobules opposite the calyx segments and spreading ones opposite the corolla lobes.  Ovary three celled, 2.0–3.0 mm long, ca. 1.0 mm wide at the base, glandular at the apex;  style 6.0–8.0 mm long, subequal to longer than the longest anthers;  stigma lobes linear, acute, 0.8–2.5 mm long, spreading when receptive; ovules anatropous, unitegmic, axial placentation,  24–48 per cell.  Fruit a capsule, obovoid, tan to golden brown, often suffused with purple, 3.0–5.5 mm long, 1.5–3.5 mm in diameter, apex acute, loculicidally dehiscing, valves slightly recurving to erect, fruit shorter than the calyx.  Seeds 12–46 per cell, minute, 0.8–1.5 mm long, 0.4–0.8 mm wide, ovoid, nearly round in cross-section, golden to pale tan, the outer testa with hygroscopic mucilage cells, producing copious fibrils when wetted.  Embryo achlorophyllous, surrounded by a more or less thin layer of endosperm, the cotyledons ovate, equal to or slightly longer than the radical.  Chromosomes: x=9. (scabra: rough or gritty to the touch, due to numerous minute projections).

Dayia scabra apparently is very local and restricted to several washes just north of Santa Rosalia, on the eastern coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.  Most of these areas are now under mine tailings and the continued existence of this species in the wild is in question.  This species has been overlooked as a result of taxonomic confusion.  Although the historical collections of D. scabra are representative and quite distinct, they have been misidentified inadvertently as Linanthus nuttallii (Grant 1959) or Giliastrum rigidulum (as Gilia rigidula, Wiggins 1980), or omitted (Day 1964) from treatments. 

Representative specimens examined.—MEXICO, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR:  Santa Rosalia, 14 March 1900, C. R. Orcutt s.n.;  Wash just north of flying field, vicinity of Santa Rosalia, 15 March 1934, R. S. Ferris 8700 (UC).  Sandy flats, 4 mi N Santa Rosalia, 27° 20’N, 112° 19’W, 24 March 1974, G. Webster 19625 (SDNHM).  Cañada El Boleo, 4.5 km NNW Santa Rosalia, 7 November 1997, A. Burquez s.n. (RSA); 27° 22’ 43”N, 112° 19’ 29”W, Boleo Canyon, N of Santa Rosalia, 21 December 1997, J. M. Porter & L. E. Machen 11524 (RSA).

Dayia grantii

Dayia grantii  J. M. Porter, Aliso 19: 72, 73. 2000.  TYPE.—Mexico, Baja California Sur, Vizcaino Desert, 1.5 mi. N of San Hipolito turn-off, valley bottom at W foot of Cerro Prieto, 26 March 1991, K. Heil & J. M. Porter 6478 (holotype: RSA!; isotypes: BRY!, SJNM!).

Erect herbaceous perennials with woody base or more frequently sub-shrubs, (18)30-–60 cm high and 20–50 cm wide, much branched, the young parts glandular-pubescent with 2–8(10) celled trichomes mostly less than 0.10–0.33 mm long, each tipped with a unicellular or multicellular yellowish gland.  Woody base to 8.5 mm thick, the bark light to dark tan or gray, spliting into a network of narrow vertical strips.  Branches ascending, branching pattern axillary along the primary axis, ultimately sympodial in the inflorescence, the branches flowering terminally, 8–30 cm long 1–4 mm thick the first year, tan to strongly anthocyanic becoming gray, chlorophylous terminally, subterete; internodes 0.5–55.3 mm long, mostly 5.0–12.0 mm, generally shorter than the leaves.  Primary leaves alternate or rarely sub-opposite, pinnatifid to nearly palmate, 8.0–32.6 mm long, gradually reduced in size in the inflorescence, rachis 0.6–1.3 mm wide, (1)2–4 pairs of opposite to sub-opposite lobes, 5.0–12.6 mm long, 0.6–1.1 mm wide,  often two sets of lobes are located at the base of the mucronate tipped leaf, sparsely glandular.  Inflorescence densely glandular puberulent, composed of reduced (1-) 2-flowered cymes, forming a thyrsoid inflorescence.  Pedicels erect to spreading, pedicel of terminal flower 1.0–3.2 mm long, 0.35–0.60 mm thick, pedicel of lateral flower 5.0–10.5 mm long, 0.30–0.60 mm thick.  Calyx 5.5–7.5 mm long, 1.7–3.0 mm in diameter at the sinuses, cylindric, tapering to a rounded base, densely glandular externally, less so internally, tubular for 3.3–4.8 mm (the lower 2/3 to 3/4), segments (lobes) equal, erect or somewhat out-curved, 1.2–3.0 mm long, triangular lanceolate, pungent-acuminate, aristate, with three primary veins within, scarious margined except near the apex;  sinuses v-shaped, the scarious intervals about equal to the chlorophyllous costae, generally not rupturing in fruit.  Corolla funnelform to salverform, 14.0–22.0 mm long, glabrous both externally and internally, pale to deep blue, with a distinct yellow center, tube shorter than lobes, straight, 6.0–9.0 mm long, ca. 3.0 mm in diameter at 1/2 length, slightly flaring at the orifice, 4.0–5.0 mm wide;  lobes 8.5–12.0 mm long, 6.0–9.5 mm wide at 1/2 length, oval to oblong or nearly orbicular, entire to emarginate, muriculopapillose within, the lobes convolute in bud, in anthesis spreading, with (15)17–22(24) close-spaced parallel veins per lobe, the veins not connected in the lobes.  Filaments glabrous, 13.5–17.6 mm long, sub-equally attached in the upper tube, the filaments superficially to distinctly adnate to the corolla tube, filaments declinate, flowers protandrous;  anthers 3.5–4.5 mm long, 0.6–0.8 mm wide, linear to linear-ovate, erect to versitile, mostly simultaneously dehiscing as the corolla lobes open, along the theca from the terminal point and downward, well exserted from the corolla tube but slightly shorter than the lobes.  Pollen grains suboblate to sheroidal;  apertures zonate, 5–7 colporate;  exine striate, the reticulum radiating from the apertures like lines of force in a magnetic field.  Nectary disk green, ca, 2 mm wide shallowly cupped, the margin regularly undulate to form erect lobules opposite the calyx segments and spreading ones opposite the corolla lobes.  Ovary three celled, 3.0-4.0 mm long, ca.1.0 mm wide at the base, glabrous;  style 10.0–15.0 mm long, subequal to longer than the anthers;  stigma lobes linear, acute, 1.5–2.0 mm long, spreading when receptive; ovules anatropous, unitegmic, axial placentation,  24–48 per cell.  Fruit a capsule, obovate, tan to golden brown, often suffused with purple, 6.0–9.0 mm long, 2.5–3.5 mm in diameter,  apex acute, loculicidally dehiscing, valves slightly recurving to erect, fruit shorter than the calyx.  Seeds 12–46 per cell, minute, ca. 1.2 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, ovoidal, nearly round in cross-section, golden to pale tan, possessing no vestiges of a wing, the outer testa with hygroscopic mucilage cells, producing copious fibrils when wetted.  Embryo achlorophyllous, surrounded by a more or less thin layer of endosperm, the cotyledons ovate, equal to or slightly longer than the radical.  Chromosomes: x=9. (grantii: honoring Verne E. Grant, botanist, geneticist, student of Polemoniaceae).

Dayia grantii apparently is endemic to a very small region of the Vizcaino desert, along the western coast of northern Baja California Sur.  It is known only from the type locality, at the western foot of Cerro Mesa (a.k.a. Cerro Prieto) between San Hipolito and Punta Prieta, 24 km south of Ciudad Bahia Ascuncion.  This species occurs along a wash and on adjacent alluvial slopes, associated with Encelia palmeri, Fouqueria dugettii, Jatropha cinera, Euphorbia miser, Bursera hindsiana, and Krameria sp., at approximately 50 ft. elevation.  Flowering occurs in (December) February through March (April) in response to winter rains, and again sporadically through the summer in response to the less frequent summer rains.

Representative specimens examined.—MEXICO, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR:  Vizcaino Desert, between Cerro Prieto and Punta Prieta, near San Hipolito, 19 March 1950, H. S. Gentry 8850 (ARIZ, RSA);  1.5 mi. N of San Hipolito turn-off, valley bottom at W foot of Cerro Prieto, 26 March 1991, K. D. Heil & J. M. Porter 6478 (BRY, RSA, SJNM);  1.5 mi. N of San Hipolito turn-off, valley bottom at W foot of Cerro Prieto, 15 March 1994, J. M. Porter 11324 (RSA).

A self-incompatible species, based on ex situ crossing studies, the flowers of Dayia grantii open during the morning and remain open for several days.  Observations of insect visitation are limited; but, butterflies, anthophorid bees, and bombilid beeflys frequent flowers.

Errata.—The DNA studies of Johnson et al. (1996) and Porter (1996) included "Gilia scabra" in their analyses.  Following the nomenclatural changes provided here, the DNA sample used in these studies actually represents Dayia grantii.